Implementing a High Performance Matrix-Matrix Block Multiply

A basic block matrix-matrix multiply code divides the operands into logical sub-matrices and multiplies and adds the sub-matrices to calculate the product. For A * B = C and a block size of B:

for (int blockRow = 0; blockRow < A.Rows; blockRow += B) {
    for (int blockColumn = 0; blockColumn < B.Columns; blockColumn += B) {
        for (int blockK = 0; blockK < A.Columns; blockK += B) {
            for (int row = blockRow; row < MIN(blockRow + B, A.Rows); ++row) {
                for (int column = blockColumn; column < MIN(blockColumn + B, B.Columns); ++column) {
                    for (int k = blockK; k < MIN(blockK + B, A.Columns); ++k) {
                        C[row, column] += A[row, k] * B[k, column];

While this code is easy to understand, it relies on the compiler to treat the matrices as blocks. Many if not most compilers do this poorly. Even with significant optimization, this code cannot overcome the limitations of most commonly used matrix data structures.

In order to implement a high performance matrix-matrix block multiply, the data structure and implementation code must be carefully optimized. In this article, the block size is B, the matrices are A * B = C, and the matrix elements are double-precision (64-bit) floating point numbers.

The Data Structure

Instead of relying on the compiler to optimize the basic block multiply code, the matrix data will be stored directly in blocks. While a matrix M has X logical rows and Y logical columns of double-precision elements, the actual structure will be an array of arrays. M has CEILING(X / B) rows and CEILING(Y / B) columns. Each physical element of M is a one-dimensional array of doubles with B * B elements. While using an array of arrays of an existing matrix class may be tempting, overall performance is unlikely to be adequate.

This design will result in a small amount of wasted memory. The worst case, where both the number of rows and number of columns are integer multiples of B plus one additional element, will waste X * (B – 1) * sizeof(double) + Y * (B – 1) * sizeof(double) bytes. For a 100,000 x 100,00 matrix, this adds  ~47 MB to the matrix’s ~75 GB size.

The Multiplication Algorithm

Since a matrix of matrices is still a matrix, the standard matrix-matrix multiplication algorithm holds. Each element C[i, j] is the dot product of the i-th row of A and the j-th column of B. The dot product of two vectors of matrices is the sum of the product of the corresponding vector elements.

The Implementation Code

// C99/C++-style code. If using C#, substitute double[] for double*

for (int blockRow = 0; blockRow < A.blockRowCount; ++blockRow) {
    for (int blockColumn = 0; blockColumn < B.blockColumnCount; ++blockColumn) {
        double* subC = C[blockRow, blockColumn];
        for (int blockK = 0; blockK < A.blockColumnCount; ++blockK) {
            double* subA = A[blockRow, blockK];
            double* subB = B[blockK, blockColumn];
            for (int row = 0; row < B; ++row) {
                for (int column = 0; column < B; ++column) {
                    for (int k = 0; k < B; ++k) {
                        subC += subA[row * B + k] * subB[k * B + column];

Average single-threaded performance should be near 98% of theoretical, non-SIMD maximum for matrices over 2000 x 2000. Average multi-threaded performance should be over 95% for matrices over 3000 x 3000. Performance for square matrices should increase as matrix size increases.

If these performance levels are not reached via compiler options, some hand-optimization may be necessary. Once the optimal block size is known, unrolling the k loop will provide a significant speed improvement. Changing the order of the blockRow, blockColumn, and blockK loops may improve performance by a few percentage points.

Determining Block Size

Experimentation will determine the optimal block size. Sqtr(L1 Cache Size / (4 * sizeof(double))) is a good place to start.

Parallelization Note

When parallelizing the code, special attention must be paid to the loop design. The loop design must guarantee each result sub-matrix subC is updated by a single thread. If the design itself cannot guarantee this, explicit locking must be used. If this is not done, random errors may result. These errors may only involve a tiny number of elements out of millions or billions. The test system must include comparing every element of the result to the result of a known-good matrix-matrix multiplication routine.

Final Notes

This combination of data structure, algorithm, and implementation code provides a high-performance, non-SIMD matrix-matrix multiplication routine. Maintaining 90%+ performance using SIMD instructions may require optimizations that go beyond what is possible in straight C/C++/C#.

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